Unless otherwise noted, all accidental death information from National Safety Council.
Like traditional crime, terrorism is a local issue and is a responsibility shared among federal, state, and local governments. In the wake of September 11, local law enforcement has taken on a pivotal role in preventing and responding to future incidents of terrorism within the United States.
The new policing model for terrorism and homeland security must address the areas of crime prevention, intelligence gathering, and information sharing. This will require a shift in the culture of law enforcement agencies, involving the creation of external partnerships, citizen involvement, problem solving, and the transformation of the organization.
In the face of unknown future terrorist threats, however, local law enforcement organizations will have to adapt existing policing strategies to fulfill the requirement of homeland security.
Over the years, law enforcement organizations have sought to address the causes and reduce the fear of crime in communities through the creation of effective partnerships with the community and other public and private-sector resources, the application of problem-solving strategies or tactics, and the transformation of agency organization and culture.
In the wake of September 11,local law enforcement agencies throughout the country find themselves struggling to identify their responsibilities and define their future role in the effort to combat terrorism.
While some have suggested that community policing can fit into the overall national strategy for homeland security, little research specifically identifies community policing strategies and their direct application to the national strategy for homeland security. Many of the objectives of terrorism prevention parallel current law enforcement policies with respect to local crime issues.
Because of these similarities, individual, neighborhood, and community crime-prevention strategies should support law enforcement in the fight against terrorism. In other words, community policing is not in itself a tactic or strategy, but instead a philosophical approach to how policing is conducted.
At its core, community-oriented policing is based on law enforcement and the community joining together to identify and address issues of crime and social disorder. In a publication, the U. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing discussed a series of community-oriented policing resources and practices that have a direct application to terrorism deterrence and prevention.
These include the use of crime mapping with GIS systems, data collection and analysis protocols, and technologies that may be used as platforms for gathering intelligence to assess terrorism vulnerability.
In addition, the community partnerships formed by police in the course of community-oriented problem solving provide a ready framework for engaging citizens in helping police to identify possible threats and implement preparedness plans. Scheider, senior analysts at the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services COPSsuggest that community policing could play an integral role in homeland security.
They contend that by applying the principles of organizational change, problem solving, and external partnerships, community policing can help police to prepare for and prevent terrorist acts, and respond to the fear such threats engender.
Local law enforcement can facilitate information gathering among ethnic or religious community groups with whom police have established a relationship. It will generally be citizens who observe the unusual — groups of men living in apartments or motels, or unusual behavior at flight schools — in their own community, and could be expected to report such observations to the local police.
According to Chapman and Scheider, problem-solving models typically used in community policing are well-suited for preventing and responding to possible terrorist activity.
Using existing data sources, agencies can conduct target vulnerability assessments and develop risk-management and crisis plans. The partnerships formed in support of community crime prevention efforts can also provide a framework for engaging citizens to help police identify possible terrorist threats and infrastructure vulnerabilities.
Effective community policing involves not only developing partnerships between law enforcement and citizens, however, but also intergovernmental and interagency collaborations with state and federal agencies. These partnerships are essential for the collection and exchange of intelligence, the identification of threats and vulnerabilities, and the sharing of resources in the event of an attack.
Problem Solving Problem solving is a broad term that describes the process by which specific issues or concerns are identified and the most appropriate remedies to abate the problem s are identified. By manipulating these factors, people will be less inclined to act in an offensive manner.
Such conditions range from the type of individuals involved to the physical environment in which these problems are created. Prior to the advent of community-oriented policing, problem-oriented policing was associated with the decentralization of responsibility and with lateral communication both within and outside the police department.
Problem-oriented policing dealt with the conditions that cause a problem; this concept of policing required officers to recognize relationships that lead to crime and disorder and direct their attention to issues of causation.
Organizational transformation involves the integration of the community policing philosophy into the mission statement, policies and procedures, performance evaluations and hiring and promotional practices, training programs, and other systems and activities that define organizational culture and activities.
Individual officers are presumably the most familiar with their communities and are therefore in the best position to forge close ties with the community and create effective solutions.
Community policing emphasizes employee participation; individual officers are given the authority to solve problems and make operational decisions suitable to their assignments. Officers are seen as generalists, not specialists.
Adapting Community Policing to Homeland Security Like traditional crime, terrorism is a local crime issue and is a responsibility shared among federal, state, and local governments. Indeed, traditional crime and terrorism are inextricably linked. International and domestic terrorist groups are well-organized and trained, and demonstrate the sophistication of other, traditional organized crime groups.
These groups commit ancillary crimes like fraud, money laundering, drug trafficking, and identity theft to provide the resources for their terrorism.
The investigative approach to a terrorist event is similar to that of a traditional crime incident. Because of the similarities between traditional crime and terrorism, departments that have already adopted a community policing philosophy should find it a seamless transition to addressing terrorism and terrorism-related crime.
Officers should already have the skills to analyze the terrorism problem, perform threat analysis, develop appropriate responses and reflect these efforts in the mission, goals and objectives of the department. Most of the real frontlines of homeland security are outside of Washington D.In fiscal year , the United States spent $ billion on counter-terrorism.
Since the terrorist attacks on Sept. 11, , the United States has spent more than $ billion on intelligence, according to The Post.
I started using Twitter the day the CA3blog site crashed. In September of last year, I wrote something provocative here about a book by Judge Posner (“batshit crazy”) that got a bazillion hits from readers on Twitter, enough hits to bring down the blog’s website.
Until that day I’d been a proud Twitter hold-out, but crashing my humble blog got my attention. BRIAN MICHAEL JENKINS Brian Michael Jenkins is the director of the Mineta Transportation Institute’s National Transportation Center and since has directed the Institute’s continuing research on protecting surface transportation against terrorism and other serious forms of crime.
In , there were roughly , police officers in the United States. The overall census for that year was about ,, citizens of the United States (I’m using these as reference numbers in order to gather my statistics, though I know the numbers fluctuate from year to year).
Consolidating Intelligence Analysis: A Review of the President’s Proposal To Create a Terrorist Threat Integration Center In the fight against terrorism, these tasks are . The Midterm Elections are fast approaching. ABC News brings you in-depth coverage and breaking political news, as voters determine the Senate and House of Representatives.