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Awareness of environmental barriers to ethical practice Concepts of justice Health policies affecting a specialty population the acquisition of the lmowledge and skills embedded in the previous level. Phases 3 and 4 evolve as APNs mature in their roles and become comfortable in the practice setting; these phases represent leadership behavior and the full enactment of the ethical decision maldng competency.
Although an expectation of the practice doctorate, all APNs should develop their ethical knowledge and sldlls to include ele- ments of all four phases of this competency.
The essential elements of each phase are described in Table This dual knowledge enables the APN student to integrate philosophical con- cepts with contemporary clinical issues. The emphasis in this initial stage is on learning the language of ethical discourse and achieving cognitive mastery.
The APN learns the theories, principles, codes, paradigm cases, and relevant laws that influence ethical decision making.
With this knowledge, the APN begins to compare current prac- tices in the clinical setting with the ethical standards desctibed in the literature. The work of this phase includes developing sensitivity to the moral dimensions of clinical practice Weaver, Engaging in this work uncovers personal values that may have been internalized and not openly aclmowledged, and is particularly impor- tant in our multicultural world.
This requires a general understanding of ethical theories, principles, and standards that help the APN define and discern the essential elements of an ethical dilemma.
Novice APNs should be able to recognize a moral problem and seek clarification and illumination of the concern. The APN identifies ethical issues and formu- lates the concerns about which others are uneasy.
This step earns credibility and enables the APN to gain self- confidence by bringing the issue to the awareness and attention of others. If the issue remains a moral concern after clarification, the APN should pursue resolution, seeking additional help if needed.
Formal education in ethical theories and concepts should be included in graduate education programs for APNs. Although some beginning graduate students will have had significant exposure to ethical issues in their undergraduate programs, most have not.
APN students with no ethics education will be at a disad- vantage in developing this competency because graduate education builds on the ethical foundation of professional practice.
Even catego- ries that do not explicitly list necessary ethical content imply it in referring to issues such as improving access to health care, addressing gaps in care, and using conceptual and analytic skills to address links between practice and organizational and policy issues.
Exposure to ethical theories, principles, and concepts allows the APN to develop the language necessary to articulate ethical concerns in an interprofessional envi- ronment. It is important, however, that lmowledge devel- opment extend beyond classroom discussions. Clinical practicum experiences also need to build in discussions of ethical dimensions of practice explicitly rather than assume that these discussions will naturally occur.
The authors concluded that this apparent void in clinical edu- cation may have been a function oflimited recognition of. IV Advocate for social justice, equity. From American Association of Colleges of Nursing.Home State Publications Nursing bulletin Reference URL Share.
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Patient-Centered Care for Muslim Women: Provider and Patient Perspectives. ing culturally appropriate healthcare for Muslim.
importance of female providers and understanding of family. confirm the importance of moving toward more comprehen- emphasized an examination of the sociopolitical factors that perpetuate prejudice, discrimination, oppression, and privi- Integrative mental healthcare White Paper: Establishing a new paradigm through .
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Mojdeh Bayat. This article was downloaded by: [Mojdeh Bayat] On: 21 March , At: Publisher: Routledge. For example, the Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS) Standards established by the HHS mandate that health care institu- tions receiving federal funds provide services that are accessible to patients regardless of their cultural back- ground (HHS, Office of Minority Health, ).
World Health Organisation (Europe) Position and Activities on Measurement of Nutrition and Physical Exercise (by M. Rigby) the European Commission has responsi-bility for a full range of policies similar to any national Government, compared with 96 7 World Health Organisation (Europe) Position and Activities on Measurement.