Bibliography of Sources for Further Study An Introduction to Celtic History The lands occupied by Celtic peoples, whose existence can be traced over more than 25 centuries, were vast. The Celtic people have mystified anthropologists and historians for generations. They were a non literate culture whose history and literature was preserved through oral tradition.
The religious beliefs and practices of the ancient Celts. The Celts, an ancient Indo-European people, reached the apogee of their influence and territorial expansion during the 4th century BC, extending across the length of Europe from Britain to Asia Minor.
In Britain and Ireland this decline moved more slowly, but traditional culture was gradually eroded through the pressures of political subjugation; today the Celtic languages are spoken only on the western periphery of Europe, in restricted areas of Ireland, Scotland, Wales, and Brittany in this last instance largely as a result of immigration from Britain from the 4th to the 7th century AD.
It is not surprising, therefore, that the unsettled and uneven history of the Celts has affected the documentation of their culture and religion. Sources Two main types of sources provide information on Celtic religion: Both pose problems of interpretation.
Most of the monuments, and their accompanying inscriptions, belong to the Roman period and reflect a considerable degree of syncretism between Celtic and Roman gods; even where figures and motifs appear to derive from pre-Roman tradition, they are difficult to interpret in the absence of a preserved literature on mythology.
Only after the lapse of many centuries--beginning in the 7th century in Ireland, even later in Wales--was the mythological tradition consigned to writing, but by then Ireland and Wales had been Christianized and the scribes and redactors were monastic scholars.
Given these circumstances it is remarkable that there are so many points of agreement between the insular literatures and the continental evidence.
This is particularly notable in the case of the Classical commentators from Poseidonius c. Mercury was the most honored of all the gods and many images of him were to be found. Mercury was regarded as the inventor of all the arts, the patron of travelers and of merchants, and the most powerful god in matters of commerce and gain.
Of these gods they held almost the same opinions as other peoples did: Apollo drives away diseases, Minerva promotes handicrafts, Jupiter rules the heavens, and Mars controls wars.
In characteristic Roman fashion, however, Caesar does not refer to these figures by their native names but by the names of the Roman gods with which he equated them, a procedure that greatly complicates the task of identifying his Gaulish deities with their counterparts in the insular literatures.
He also presents a neat schematic equation of god and function that is quite foreign to the vernacular literary testimony. Yet, given its limitations, his brief catalog is a valuable and essentially accurate witness.
In comparing his account with the vernacular literatures, or even with the continental iconography, it is well to recall their disparate contexts and motivations. On the other hand, the lack of structure is sometimes more apparent than real.
Celtic languages, also spelled Keltic, branch of the Indo-European language family, spoken throughout much of Western Europe in Roman and pre-Roman times and currently known chiefly in the British Isles and in the Brittany peninsula of northwestern France. An Introduction to Celtic History. The lands occupied by Celtic peoples, whose existence can be traced over more than 25 centuries, were vast. Celts occupied land in modern day Eastern Europe, Greece, Spain, Northern Italy, Western Europe, England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland. Old Irish form of BRENDAN. BRENNUS m Ancient Celtic (Latinized) Latinized form of a Celtic name (or title) that possibly meant either "king, prince" or "raven". Brennus was a Gallic leader of the 4th century BC who attacked and sacked Rome.
It has, for instance, been noted that of the several hundred names containing a Celtic element attested in Gaul the majority occur only once, which has led some scholars to conclude that the Celtic gods and their cults were local and tribal rather than national.
The seeming multiplicity of deity names may, however, be explained otherwise--for example, many are simply epithets applied to major deities by widely extended cults. The notion of the Celtic pantheon as merely a proliferation of local gods is contradicted by the several well-attested deities whose cults were observed virtually throughout the areas of Celtic settlement.
According to Caesar the god most honored by the Gauls was "Mercury," and this is confirmed by numerous images and inscriptions.
His Celtic name is not explicitly stated, but it is clearly implied in the place-name Lugudunon "the fort or dwelling of the god Lugus" by which his numerous cult centers were known and from which the modern Lyon, Laon, and Loudun in France, Leiden in The Netherlands, and Legnica in Poland derive.
The Irish and Welsh cognates of Lugus are Lugh and Lleu, respectively, and the traditions concerning these figures mesh neatly with those of the Gaulish god.
An episode in the Middle Welsh collection of tales called the Mabinogion, or Mabinogiseems to echo the connection with shoemaking, for it represents Lleu as working briefly as a skilled exponent of the craft. In Ireland Lugh was the youthful victor over the demonic Balar "of the venomous eye.
His proper festival, called Lughnasadh "Festival of Lugh" in Ireland, was celebrated--and still is at several locations--in August; at least two of the early festival sites, Carmun and Tailtiu, were the reputed burial places of goddesses associated with the fertility of the earth as was, evidently, the consort Maia--or Rosmerta ["the Provider"]--who accompanies "Mercury" on many Gaulish monuments.An Introduction to Celtic History.
The lands occupied by Celtic peoples, whose existence can be traced over more than 25 centuries, were vast. Celts occupied land in modern day Eastern Europe, Greece, Spain, Northern Italy, Western Europe, England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland.
Pre-Roman Celtic society, specifically in Britain and Gaul in the last two centuries BC, was highly sophisticated and organised and clearly not the „barbaric‟ world that the ancient . The religious beliefs and practices of the ancient Celts. The Celts, an ancient Indo-European people, reached the apogee of their influence and territorial expansion during the 4th century BC, extending across the length of Europe from Britain to Asia Minor.
even where figures and motifs appear to derive from pre-Roman tradition, they are. List of ancient peoples of Italy.
Before the introduction of writing, and before ancient sources existed that describe ancient Italian tribes, In contrast to those tribes or peoples documented by ancient sources, pre-Roman and pre-Iron Age archeological cultures are also listed, following the lists of specifically named ancient Italian.
Pre-Roman Celtic calendars were much more accurate than the Roman one. In fact, they were possibly more accurate than the Gregorian calendar in use nowadays. Each Galatian tribe was organised in four septs (clans), each ruled by a tetrach (chief), assisted by a judge, a general and two deputy generals.
In the ancient world 'Celtic' is a term that homogenises where we should instead see variety.
To turn to Britain, 'Pre Celtic Britain' and 'Celtic Britain' now. So my final summary of the question is that I think that the people who lived in Pre-Celtic Britain were mostly the same people who then lived in Celtic Britain. writing comes.