Precautionary measures for genetically modified foods

Major HBR cases concerns on a whole industry, a whole organization or some part of organization; profitable or non-profitable organizations. To make a detailed case analysis, student should follow these steps:

Precautionary measures for genetically modified foods

Is Golden Rice Special? Others, however, are objecting strongly, raising environmental, food safety, and ethical concerns. A majority of people in Western Europe, Japan and Australia, for example, want at least to have labels on products that contain genetically modified organisms GMOswhile the most extreme opponents want to see genetically modified GM crops completely excluded from Precautionary measures for genetically modified foods and consumption in their country.

The emergence of genetically modified foods has generated a variety of policy reactions in different countries.

Genetically Modified Foods, Trade, and Developing Countries: Is Golden Rice Special?

Regardless of whether developing countries are exporters or importers of agricultural crops, they will be affected by the biotech policies adopted in countries with which they trade - especially if international trade disputes concerning GMOs emerge.

The strong consumer skepticism toward genetic engineering in some countries, particularly in Europe, will also define the trading environment in which developing countries must compete.

China, for example, found its exports of processed foods to the United Kingdom being restricted in because they may have contained traces of GM soybean imported by China from the United States.

In turn China placed a moratorium both on soybean imports from the US and on the use of GM varieties by its own farmers for food and feed but not cotton production.

The use of genetically modified crop varieties is currently most widespread in the maize and soybean sectors. These first-generation GM crops have improved agronomic traits such as resistance to pests and diseases, and tolerance of specific chemical herbicides.

The development of plants with such attributes aims at increasing farmer profitability, typically by reducing input requirements and hence costs. A second generation of GM crops is focusing on breeding for attributes desired by consumers. In contrast to the current commercial applications of biotech crops, this new rice variety aims directly at benefiting consumers rather than producers.

More specifically, it aims at improving the health of poor people in developing countries that rely on rice as their main staple food. As with the first-generation, producer-focused GM technology, the benefits over time will be shared between producers and consumers, and hence between adopting and non-adopting countries - or would be if countries remain open to international trade in these products.

This paper analyses the prospective impacts of the introduction of Golden Rice seen in an international trade context. First, a brief overview of the current status of genetic engineering in agriculture is given, including a discussion of consumer attitudes toward GM food and how the markets have already begun to react hereto.

Then the paper elaborates on ways in which the emergence of GMOs is prompting the development of national regulations and international agreements that could raise difficulties and potentially lead to trade disputes in the WTO. The case of Golden Rice is then addressed by discussing similarities and differences with biotech varieties of maize and soybeans that are currently being produced and traded on commercial terms.

The paper concludes by drawing out implications of the analysis. Current status of genetic engineering in agriculture1 Genetic engineering techniques and their applications have developed rapidly since the introduction of the first genetically modified plants in the s.

In the year genetically modified crops occupied 44 million hectares of land - a considerable expansion from less than 3 million hectares in James, The United States holds almost three-fourths of the total crop area devoted to genetically modified crops.

Up till now the vast majority of global transgenic crops have been grown in industrial countries, but the recent uptake of GM crops has been most rapid in developing countries. Continued expansion in the use of transgenic crops will depend in part on the benefits obtained by farmers cultivating transgenic instead of conventional crops relative to the higher cost for transgenic seeds.

So far the improvements have been not so much in increased yields per hectare of the crops but rather by reducing costs of production OECD That is, genetic engineering in agriculture has mainly been used to modify crops so that they have improved agronomic traits such as tolerance of specific chemical herbicides and resistance to pests and diseases James The development of transgenic plants with enhanced agronomic traits aims at increasing farmer profitability, typically by increasing factor productivity.

Genetic modification can also be used to improve the final quality characteristics of a product to the benefit of the final consumer, perhaps via the food processing industry or livestock producers.

Such traits may include enhanced nutritional content, improved durability and better processing characteristics. This type of crop will in many cases sell at a higher market price since it is a different, better-quality product. Most of these types of modification are still in the research pipeline.

One such crop - vitamin A enhanced rice, known as Golden Rice - is in an advanced stage of being developed for commercial use.

It has the potential of alleviating vitamin A deficiency problems in many developing countries. Consumer acceptance or rejection A factor that is at least as important in determining the extent of continued expansion of transgenic crop plantings and the development of new GM varieties is consumer attitudes.

Certain very strong and vocal consumer groups in developed countries are particularly skeptical about the use of GMOs in food production and demand certified non-GM varieties. The apparent lack of direct consumer benefits from the current generation of GM foods has not helped foster consumer confidence in GM foods.Precautionary Measures for Genetically Modified Foods Essay Genetically modified (GM) Genetically Modified Foods (GMF) are animals or plants that have had genetic modification.

This changes the characteristics of the organism, or the way it . Safety of Genetically Modified Foods and Food Ingredients Ruth S.

Precautionary measures for genetically modified foods

MacDonald, RD PhD. Safety measures Statement by the AAAS Board of Directors on Labeling of Genetically Modified Foods, 20 October Food Science and Human Nutrition: . Opponents of genetically modified foods point to a handful of studies indicating possible safety problems.

Oct 12,  · The precautionary principle is a principle that should be applied to the use of genetically modified (GM) food crops concerning human health. A giant agricultural corporation, such as Monsanto, uses advertising techniques, and funds research initiatives to convince the public that GM foods are not just harmless, but beneficial to . Genetically modified foods emerged towards the end of the 20th Century. Follow the rapid shrinking of the world due to aspects of globalization; ideas are have come up with precautionary policies and measures against genetically modified foods. Rather than taking unknown risks, the anti-GM foods. Precautionary Measures For Genetically Modified Foods Harvard Case Study Solution and Analysis of Reading The Harvard Case Study: To have a complete understanding of the case, one should focus on case reading. It is said that hbr case study should be read two times. Initially, fast reading without taking notes and underlines should be done.

But reviewers have dismantled almost all of those reports. For example, a study by plant biochemist Árpád Pusztai, then at the Rowett Institute in Scotland, found that rats fed a GM potato suffered from stunted growth and immune .

Genetically Modified (GM) Crops: Precautionary Science and Conflicts of Interests emphasizing that “precautionary measures should be organizations that produce so-called ‘genetically.

'Precautionary Principle' justifies GMO bans, restrictions | Genetic Literacy Project

Also, because of the mounting data, it is biologically plausible for Genetically Modified Foods to cause adverse health effects in humans. In spite of this risk, the biotechnology industry claims that GM foods can feed the world .

Precautionary Measures For Genetically Modified Foods Harvard Case Study Solution and Analysis of Reading The Harvard Case Study: To have a complete understanding of the case, one should focus on case reading.

It is said that hbr case study should be read two times. Initially, fast reading without taking notes and underlines should be done.

Science & Environmental Health Network - Precautionary Principle: Essays