Behavioral theories focus on how leaders behave. For instance, do leaders dictate what needs to be done and expect cooperation? Or do they involve their teams in decision-making to encourage acceptance and support? In the s, Kurt Lewin developed a framework based on a leader's behavior.
Greenleaf The above quote lays its premise on a leadership theory that has gone to challenge traditional leadership models. Enjoy the longest and most comprehensive guide on servant leadership. The theory has been evolving over time, with some of the ideas going back centuries.
The historical context The basic idea of servant leadership is to challenge the traditional hierarchical leadership structures and question the idea of what it is to serve and to lead.
The idea of serving others while leading is not a new concept, as philosophers throughout the ages have talked about servitude as a virtue for leaders. In a classic Chinese textTao Te Ching, there are passages that talk about servant leadership.
The text, which has been often attributed to the famous Chinese writer Lao-Tzu, discusses how the great leaders are not to be seen and who helps the people achieve things. He embodied the idea that by serving others you can empower them and help them see the way.
Not so with you. Instead, whoever wants to become great among you must be your servant, and whoever wants to be first must be servant of all.
For even the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many. A powerful example of servant leadership at the time was the act of washing the feet of his disciples.
In the historical context of the time, the demeaning task was left for the lowest rank people. When Jesus performed this unthinkable act, he told his followers: Now that I, your Lord and Teacher, have washed your feet.
I have set you an example that you should do as I have done for you. For example, listen to the powerful speech by Queen Elizabeth II on her coronation in The modern context The idea of servant leadership was coined more thoroughly and brought to a modern business world by Robert K.
His book The Servant as Leader was published in and it still forms the basis of the theory to this day.
He had worked for the company for 38 years. After his retirement he marked on a second career as consultant, further developing his ideas around servant leadership.
In his essay, The Servant as Leader, he wrote: Then conscious choice brings one to aspire to lead. That person is sharply different from one who is leader first, perhaps because of the need to assuage an unusual power drive or to acquire material possessions.
The book is a story about a group of travelers and their servant Leo. Leo performed menial tasks for the group and acted as the cheerful spirit of the group.
But Leo suddenly disappeared one day, leaving the group in chaos and eventually ending their journey. Leo was actually the leader all of the time, but he was servant first because that was what he was, deep down inside.
The era saw plenty of young people feeling hopeless about future prospects, something that is obvious across the Western world today. To Greenleafpart of the importance of the servant leadership concept is based on its ability to offer hope through awareness and self-understanding.
In essence, servant leadership is something innate — the wish to serve is not something you instill on yourself, it is a feeling that comes from within.
On the other hand, being a leader is only a status or a title — it is not a permanent position and it is given to you and can therefore be taken away. Therefore, by serving first, you can make a real difference. By creating more servant institutions, ones that focus on serving the employee first, you are able to instill change in society.
This would then lead to a more loving and just environment for everyone. In his book, The Power of Servant-Leadership, Greenleaf said the only way to achieve a servant institution is if: Some of his major publications include: A Journey into the Nature of Legitimate Power and Greatness Servant, Leader and Follower Further writings and studies of the concept Greenleaf sparked an interest in the theory and soon other writings and studies on servant leadership emerged.
It has also gained traction recently with the issue of increasing income inequality, which has sparked questions over how modern organizations operate. InSpears wrote in an essay, Reflections on Robert K.
Spears, as well as Robert C Liden and his colleagues, have identified different values and dimensions in the uses of servant leadership. This has sparked interest from behavioral scientists, such as E.
The importance of values is a core part of leadership philosophy, as it shapes the way the leader behaves and acts. For further readings on the topic, you can check out the following books:Hogan Coaching Network. The Hogan Coaching Network (HCN) is a group of highly credentialed and broadly experienced consultants who are experts not only in the Hogan inventories, but also in coaching and consulting - especially at senior management and executive levels.
Dr. William Marston identified the four types of human behavior as Dominance, Influence, Steadiness and Conscientiousness in DISC Theory. This is known today as the DISC Personality System.
Each person has a combination of one, two, or three of these characteristics, composing their unique DISC personality style. References Avolio and Mhatre, Avolio B.J., Mhatre K.H., () Authentic Leadership Advances in Theory and Research on Authentic Leadership The Oxford Handbook of Positive Organizational Scholarship.(Chapter 59).
The Power of Leadership provides a simple but effective guide to improving your project leadership skills. I liked the approach of having exercises to re-inforce the key learning outcomes and real life examples from respected Project Managers.
International Journal of Social Science & Interdisciplinary Research_____ ISSN IJSSIR, Vol. 2 (3), MARCH () Online available at urbanagricultureinitiative.com air university | dod & usgov | other research | articles & statements. see also the handbooks and other references.
see also the articles on competencies page. see also the AWC gateway to lessons learned. Air University Research ___[return to top]. Strategic Leadership - Defining the Challenge, by Guillot, in Winter Air and Space Power Journal.
Commanding an Air Force Squadron in the.