The divided line

The sun, he said, not only provides the visibility of the objects, but also generates them and is the source of their growth and nurture. Many primitive religions identify the sun with God, for good reason.

The divided line

Of the Divided Line, Smithp. As Ravenp. This particular tendency is especially pronounced throughout the whole of the Divided Line. But in any case it is clear that the Divided Line requires attentive reading and reflection. The basic features are as follows: Using a line for illustration, Plato divides human knowledge into four grades or levels, differing in their degree of clarity and truth.

First, imagine a line divided into two sections of unequal length Figure 1, hash mark C. The upper level corresponds to Knowledge, and The divided line the realm of Intellect.

The lower level corresponds to Opinion, and concerns the world of sensory experience.

The divided line

Plato says only that the sections are of "unequal" length, but the conventional view is that the Knowledge section is the longer one. Then bisect each of these sections hash marks B The divided line D. From highest to lowest, these are: The Divided Line Plato admits to being loose with terms.

For example, while noesis mainly refers to the highest of the four cognitive states, sometimes he uses it to denote the intellectual sphere generally. Also, he sometimes calls the highest grade episteme, but also uses that term in a more general sense to refer to technical sciences.

In any case, it is evident that these four states correspond to the stages of prisoners' ascent in the Cave Allegory Rep. The line image lets Plato point out instructive ratios concerning truth quality amongst the states. As Being is to becoming, so Knowledge is to Opinion. As Knowledge is to Opinion, so noesis is to pistis, And dianoia is to eikasia, And though Plato does not say this explicitly, but rather lets us see it ourselves noesis is to dianoia.

Interpretation Plato certainly placed the Divided Line in the center of the Republic for a reason. Thus we must begin by understanding what the nature and purpose of the Republic is.

To facilitate inquiry we will make the following assumptions: The Republic is mainly an ethical and psychological work.

Commentary for Deuteronomy 32

As Socrates states explicitly in 2. The model works because the human psyche may indeed be accurately likened to a commonwealth of citizens. Such psychic pluralism is recognized by dozens of modern theories of human personality for reviews see Lester; Rowan, ; Schwartz, Different theories give different names for these personality elements, but overall the terms subpersonalities or sub-egos seem adequate, at least if understood very generally.

We have, in short, a separate subpersonality or sub-ego associated with every one of our social roles and relationships, jobs and projects, goals, hopes, plans and ambitions, appetites and desires, passions and emotions, dispositions and inner voices, styles, self-images and self-concepts.

And these are only our conscious elements. Who knows how many more 'people' there are within us operating at an entirely sub- or unconscious level! The commonwealth of our psyche — psychopolis — can well or poorly governed, congenial or conflict-ridden, integrated or fragmented, harmonious or discordant.

Plato's aim in the Republic — identical with his and Socrates' overall project — is to instruct us how to achieve a well-governed, harmonious psyche by means of philosophia, the love of Wisdom. In an oppressive, conflicted soul-city, each subpersonality seeks only its own narrow interests.


In the ideal soul-city each subpersonality looks to the good of all. For example, in a vicious soul-city, the money subpersonality may seek to acquire wealth by questionable means, putting it into conflict with other subpersonalities. Harmony of the soul-city personality integration is accomplished when subpersonalities instead seek direction from a higher source — a separate faculty or faculties?

Its aim is to teach us how to think and how to live. Salvation from Egoism by Higher Knowledge Now let's try to put the pieces together. To begin, we are probably on solid ground to suggest that the Divided Line is principally concerned with moral epistemology: Upon the answer to this eminently practical question all our well-being depends.Shakespeare's Writing Style.

Shakespeare used a metrical pattern consisting of lines of unrhymed iambic pentameter, called blank verse. His plays were composed using blank verse, although there are passages in all the plays that deviate from the norm and are composed of .

Analogy of the divided line - Wikipedia

Fulfillment by Amazon (FBA) is a service we offer sellers that lets them store their products in Amazon's fulfillment centers, and we directly pack, ship, and provide customer service for these products. Verse 5~Many blame God for the suffering that takes place on this earth, but this verse shows that it is the fault of imperfect mankind because Jehovah God is perfect and holy and can have nothing to do with the wickedness we see on earth today.

If there is a progression in the divided line (a) it is within each of the sections of the line, and (b) it is an epistemic progression without some of the ontological implications it is commonly taken to have.

The divided line analogy provides a way to visualize the distinction between different states of mind and to understand which states of mind are more reliable than others. The modern periodic table, based on atomic number and electron configuration, was created primarily by a Russian chemist, Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev, and a German physicist, Julius Lothar Meyer, both working independently.

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