Forty-three years of peace among the great powers of Europe came to an end inwhen an act of political terrorism provoked two great alliance systems into mortal combat. Early YearsEuropeans were fighting heavily on two fronts before the U.
The war can be represented as totalitarian regimes verses democratic regimes, but that is a somewhat simplistic analysis because rivalry and jealousy between the two sides was a fundamental issue.
Germany felt that it was entitled to an empire; Britain, France, and even Belgium possessed extensive overseas territory while Germany had just a few colonies.
The democratization process, though, was more advanced among the Allies than in Germany and her main ally, the Ottoman Empire. Humanity should learn from the legacy of this war that war cannot end war—it can only lead to more violence.
The higher principle of peaceful resolution of differences attracted much interest after when the League of Nations was formed, but the nations of the world were unwilling to establish this as an effective body, being reluctant to give it any real power. President Woodrow Wilson had been one of its chief architects but the U.
This assassination set in motion a series of fast-moving events that escalated into a full-scale war.
The cause of the conflict, however, is complex. Historians and political scientists have grappled with this question for nearly a century without reaching a consensus. Alliances Political scientists regard the building of alliances as a cause, specifically the formation of the Triple Entente and Triple Alliance.
Alliances emboldened participating nations, leading each to believe that they had powerful backing. Both camps functioned in unique ways that contributed to the spread of war. For the Triple Alliance, the strong relationship between Germany and Austria expanded the conflict to a level where it would include at least four participants.
Russia, France, and Britain had a relationship that was much less certain incontributing to the fact that each made the decision to go to war without collaborative consultation and with their own interests in mind. Arms races The German-British naval arms race drastically intensified after the launch of the HMS Dreadnought, a revolutionary battleship that made all previous battleships obsolete.
A major naval arms race in shipbuilding developed, related to the concept of new imperialism, furthering the interest in alliances.
Kennedy argues that both nations adopted U.
Kennedy, Additionally, this concentration kept related industries active and unemployment down while minimizing internal strife through the focus on a common, patriotic goal.
Different scholars have different opinions about the degree to which the arms race was itself a cause of the war. Ferguson points out that Britain easily maintained her advantage. On the other hand, both sides were prepared for war. Ferguson, Plans, distrust, and mobilization: The First out of the Gate theory Many political scientists argue that the German, French, and Russian war plans automatically escalated the conflict.
Conflict on two fronts meant that Germany had to eliminate one opponent quickly before attacking the other, relying on a strict timetable.
All three created an atmosphere where generals and planning staffs were anxious to take the initiative and seize decisive victories using these elaborate mobilization plans with precise timetables.
Once the mobilization orders were issued, it was understood by both generals and statesmen alike that there was little or no possibility of turning back or a key advantage would be sacrificed.
The problem of communications in should also not be underestimated; all nations still used telegraphy and ambassadors as the main form of communication, which resulted in delays from hours to even days.
Militarism and autocracy U.
President Woodrow Wilson and other observers blamed the war on militarism. The idea was that aristocrats and military elites had too much control over Germany, Russia, and Austria, and the war was a consequence of their thirst for military power and disdain for democracy.
This was a theme that figured prominently in anti-German propaganda, which cast Kaiser Wilhelm II and Prussian military tradition in a negative light. Consequently, supporters of this theory called for the abdication of such rulers, the end of the aristocratic system, and the end of militarism—all of which justified American entry into the war once Czarist Russia dropped out of the Allied camp.
Wilson hoped the League of Nations and universal disarmament would secure a lasting peace, although he failed to secure U. He also acknowledged variations of militarism that, in his opinion, existed within the British and French political systems.
Economic imperialism Lenin famously asserted that the worldwide system of imperialism was responsible for the war.Russian Civil War, (–20), conflict in which the Red Army successfully defended the newly formed Bolshevik government led by Vladimir I. Lenin against various Russian and interventionist anti-Bolshevik armies.
The influenza pandemic of killed more people than the Great War, known today as World War I (WWI), at somewhere between 20 and 40 million people. It has been cited as the most devastating epidemic in recorded world history.
The First World War, known as the Great War before and as World War One after , lasted from August to the final Armistice with Germany on November 11, During the war, it was referred to as the war to end all wars.
Some question the appropriateness of the term “world war” because it was largely a European, North African, and Middle Eastern war. Effects of WW1 on America Fact The impact and effects of the Great War on America were extremely diverse and directly led to the period in history from referred to as the First Red Scare and the emergence of the 's Ku Klux Klan.
During World War I the western front in France became bogged down in trench warfare that emphasized defense, whereas during World War II offense proved decisive on this front as Germany subdued France in a quick campaign. World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from to The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the urbanagricultureinitiative.com was the most global war in history; it directly .