It is composed of three data structure as shown below: Though the new format is a little complicated for us, it is well-designed for the parser of the resource managers, and also size of many types of XLOG records is usually smaller than the previous one. Size of main structures is shown in the Figs.
Before that release, all open data write ahead logging postgresql had to be fsynced on every commit, which is very slow. Back then, we had to fsync everything all the time. In Oracle, you need the log to roll back changes. In PostgreSQL, the nonoverwriting storage system takes care of that. But probably nobody thought about implications for fsyncing back then.
Note that the WAL was really just an implementation detail at this point. Slony Just for context: Until then, the only backup method was a full dump, which would get impractical as databases grew. Hence this method to take an occasional base backup, which is the expensive part, and then add on parts of the WAL, which is cheaper.
The basic configuration mechanisms that we still use today, for example the recovery. But still no replication here.
You could probably have set this up with your own scripts as early as 8. I think a lot of PostgreSQL 8.
First, the possibility to connect to a standby server in read-only mode, making it a so-called hot standby.
Whereas before, a standby server was really mainly useful only as a reserve in case the primary server failed, with hot standby you could use secondary servers to spread out read-only loads.
Second, instead of relying solely on the WAL archive and recovery functionalities to transport WAL data, a standby server could connect directly to the primary server via the existing libpq protocol and obtain WAL data that way, so-called streaming replication.
The primary use in this release was that the standby could be more up to date, possibly within seconds, rather than several minutes with the archive-based approach.
For a robust setup, you would still need to set up an archive. But streaming replication was also a forward-looking feature that would eventually make replication setups easier, by reducing the reliance on the old archiving mechanisms.
Although it is scheduled to go EOL later this year, I expect this release will continue to live for a long time. Some people continue to favor rsync because it is faster for them. This feature is frequently misunderstood by users. While it ensures that your data is on at least two servers at all times, it might actually reduce the availability of your system, because if the standby server goes down, the primary will also go down, unless you have a third server available to take over the synchronous standby duty.
Less widely know perhaps is that PostgreSQL 9. Go back further, and you might feel constrained by the available tools. In previous releases, the second standby would have to be rebuilt.
This improvement makes dynamic infrastructure changes much simpler. Note that while streaming replication has gotten more sophisticated over the years, you still needed a WAL archive for complete robustness.Jan 02, · PostgreSQL uses Write-Ahead Logging (WAL) as its approach to transaction logging.
WAL's central concept is that changes to data files (where tables and indexes reside) must be written only after those changes have been logged, that is, when log records describing the changes have been flushed to permanent storage.
In the field of computer science, WAL is an acronym of Write Ahead Logging, which is a protocol or a rule to write both changes and actions into a transaction log, whereas in PostgreSQL, WAL is an acronym of Write Ahead urbanagricultureinitiative.com the term is used as synonym of transaction log, and also used to refer to an implemented mechanism related to writing action to a transaction log (WAL).
Write Ahead Log.
For additional information on tuning these settings, see Section Sep 26, · Prior to version 10, hash indexes didn't perform well under concurrency, lacked write-ahead logging and thus were not safe in the face either of crashes or of replication, and were in various other ways second .
This is a hint that Simpana is performing a backup using native PostgreSQL commands, because a urbanagricultureinitiative.com file would only be created after a PostgreSQL backup of the database/instance using pg_basebackup.
This is just my conclusion after reading the documentation for PostgreSQL Write a message to the server log if checkpoints caused by the filling of checkpoint segment files happen closer together than this many seconds (which suggests that max_wal_size ought to be raised).
The default is 30 seconds (30s).